The criticism over the propriety of capital punishment is as old as the capital punishment itself. Contemporary writers and apostles of peace propose moral arguments promulgating or against the topic. However, one stellar issue has remarkably engendered a veritable change in the debate. That issue is the deterrent effect of death penalty.

Capital crimes are committed largely as a result of hate, jealousy, and other interpersonal conflicts involving pecuniary and non-pecuniary motives or as a by-product of crimes against property, and that the propensity to perpetrate such crimes is influenced by the prospect of gains and losses associated with their commission.


The arguments opposing capital punishment are based on ethical and aesthetic considerations. It arises also from the risk of errors of justice inherent in the legal system conflated with political, cultural and personal corruption under the certain regime.


The verification of the deterrent effect and the determination of the expected trade-off between the execution of the murderer and the lives of the potential victims can foretell the desirability of the death penalty as a social tool. This may be the reason for various local bodies to take up the issue for re-examination and the analysis of relative effects.

According to a recent study in New York, it is not the intensity of the pain that has the effect on the pain but its continuance. The death of the criminal is a terrible but momentary spectacle and therefore not has an efficacious deterrent effect.


Also, there are many who look upon death with intrepidity and firmness. Some through fanaticism, others through a desperate resolution to get rid of their misery or to cease to live. There are certain cases where the desire to be executed has caused persons to commit a crime.



The importance of the preventive effect of the death penalty may not be practical because actual imprisonment for life can provide in principle an identical service and because the risk of recidivism among those convicted for murder may be relatively low.


Thus, whether the capital punishment constitutes a more severe punishment for a criminal still remains an empirical issue and cannot be settled purely on logical grounds

Application of economic theory is a welcome gesture to present some analytical considerations and empirical evidence that support the notion that offenders respond to incentives and, in particular, that punishment and law enforcement deter the commission of specific crimes

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